Anatomy, locomotor system, sphenoid bone sphenoid bone is one of the most important skull bone, because of its strategic position which allows it to joint with a lot of other cranial bones Moreover it contributes to the formation of the cranial base, the cranial roof, orbital cavity and nasal cavity Probably it’s not simple for you to see the sphenoid bone from this view But its form is clear if we see it from the cranial cavity.
Sphenoid bone is not a regular bone so its description and its classification are pretty difficult Infact it has to be considered as an irregular bone rather than flat bone As you can see, its form is pretty complex, so let’s analyze it in details Here’s a detail of the sphenoid bone Due to its complex structure, we’ll divide it in several parts in order to describe it There’s a body, the central portion, that forms the anterior face.
There are two lesser wings Two greater wings and four pterygoid processes which are theese hooks Ultimately its form resemble a butterfly But let’s describe it more precisely The body has a cubic form.
In its posterior part there’s a notch called sella turcica that houses the pituitary gland posteriorly to the sella there are two posterior clinoid processes Anteriorly to the sella there are theese two sharp processes called anterior clinoid processes The anterior part of the superior face of the body (between the lesser wings) is called jugum sphenoidale Laterally, on the body there are only few structures, one of theese is a sulcus created by the internal carotid artery which pass on the sphenoid bone after its entrance in the cranial cavity from the apex of the temporal pyramid.
Finally, the inferior face is concave and it forms a barrel vault Another importan structure is the sulcus that we can find near the jugum sphenoidale It’s important because here there’s the optic chiasm between the optical nerves that come from the optical fissures This nerves in this zone meet each other and exchange some of their fibers On the anterior face of the body there’s the sphenoidal crest That joints with the vomer trought an unique joint called schindilesis.
As you can see, on the frontal face there are also two holes, known as sphenoid sinus openings Sphenoid is not a solid bone, infact, sectioning it we can observe a large cavity. These are the sphenoid sinuses They are paranasal sinuses, and their functions are: to heat the air, modulate the phonation and make the bone lighter Trought theese openings, sphenoid sinuses lead to the nasal cavity One more thing about the sphenoid bone: here you can observe this small hole This hole is the entrance of the pterygoideal channel.
Let’s decribe now the lesser wings They are roughly triangular, and contain the anterior clinoid prrocess. They are smooth and anteriorly they joint with the frontal bone The most interesting parts are the optical foramen As you can see, the lesser wings form a hole wich is in touch with the orbital cavity In this hole pass the optical nerves that will form the optical chiasm on the chiasmatic sulcus Both lesser and greater wings form a S shaped fissure, called superior orbital fissure.
Here pass other nerves that serve the eye, but they are oculomotor nerves (iii, iv and vi) which function is the fixation of the gaze The greater wings are laminar Their form is irregular but its roughly a qudrangle They originate from the body, form the inferior orbital fissure and then they present a free margin, which joints with other cranial bones the lower part of the wing present a spine called sphenoidal spine (for the attachment of certain masticatory muscles) Greater wings present also some holes for the passage of some cranial nervers.
Come curare in Breve Tempo il Reflusso Gastrico e lernia iatale con la Fisioterapia SUB ENG
Hy,my name is imma trabucco, i’m a physiotherapist specialized in global postural reeducation GPR is a new therapeutic method that can be very effective for the treatment of cervical, lumbar or slipped disc problems. GPR can also treat very successfully troubles deriving from gastroesophageal reflux caused by hiatal hernia. I’ll explain to you in a simple and detailed tutorial how these two pathologies.
Can be treated very naturally with physiotherapy even if, at first sight, they do not belong to the field of physiotherapy. Look at the short explanatory tutorial that I have prepared for you. The diaphragm muscle is the main muscle presiding over the breathing function It is located in a central position within the thorax cavity. over the abdominal region.
Following the entire arch of our rib structure 0:00:57.620,0:01:00.050 thereby taking the shape of a domelike structure This muscle is able to get closer to our stomach with which it come in a very close contact as we shall see further below, this is a very important detail 0:01:10.620,0:01:14.410 because it will help us to understand the insurgence of several pathologies and of their ensuing treatments let us now examine in some detail the functioning of the diaphragm.
In very special motion during our breathing function When we take in air into our lungs the diaphragm contracts its muscular fibers thereby causing the lowering of the domelike shape which goes up again when we eject the air so that the air goes out thanks to the stretching of the diaphragm’s fibers 0:01:46.560,0:01:49.260 the diaphragm is therefore a muscle which never rests.
It therefore has the tendency to get gradually shorter with time this means that it comes down from its previous domelike structure and gradually becomes a flatter muscle thereby becoming increasingly less able to act thus finally causing a respiratory blockage which means that the diaphragm is nearly alway in the exhaling mode.
Which therefore indicates that it assumes a nearly flat shape. 0:02:20.119,0:02:24.549 this pathological lowering of the muscle creates additional pressure on the stomach which therefore can potentially open up the exophagus thereby causing a stronger possibility of having liquid reflux. Such a marked lowering of the esophagus.
Is also causing the insurgence of jatalic hernia since such a lowering by constantly pushing onto the stomach can also act on the esophagus since the latter is indeed connected with the stomach in such a case, however, also the diaphragm is pulling down.
And causes a downward movement in any event the that still remains above because it is connected with the back spine and because of the esophagus pulling down the stomach itself can get above the diaphragm which therefore causes the iatalic hernia 0:03:17.079,0:03:20.6′ such a strain can indeed cause problems with.